Outdoor solar water purification using HNGs in natural sunlight. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Saline water—classified as having more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved salts—can be made into freshwater through desalination. The process is typically fueled by the sun, or by some other power source heating the water; after the heat energy turns the saline water into steam, one captures the steam, and then distills it back into water as it cools and condenses. On a small scale, such as that of an individual-sized still, it’s a simple, rain-inspired process, albeit a slow one.
NIKE SB STEFAN JANOSKI MAX OBSIDIAN blueE NAVY MINERAL gold 631303 447 SZ 12,Griffey Max 1 Size 8 Men,
Distillation not only removes salt, but also other contaminants, so it’s been a traditional standby treatment process. The challenge to improve upon it is growing more urgent as the Earth’s population booms and freshwater resources dwindle thanks to pollution and drought. Salinity is a problem in at least 30 percent of the world’s irrigated regions, and remediation is very expensive, creating additional need for low-cost desalination.
Obviously, there are a number of weaknesses in the existing “state of the art” for desalination. The team took a systematic approach to dealing with each weakness in turn.
NIKE KD VII 7 Clearwater bluee Black Basketball shoes Sneakers NEW Mens Sz 17 18,NIKE AIR MAX 90 PREMIUM SE MEN'S SHOES [SIZE 11.5] UNIV RED PURPLE 858954-600,NEW NIKE LEBRON SOLDIER XI SIZE 12 NEUTRAL OLIVE BLACK CAMO GUMMED 897644 200,
Therefore, to provide enough energy for the water evaporation step of the process, most industrial solar water purification systems utilize costly and complex optical concentrators (OCs). These focus sunlight to heat the water. However, such optical concentration leads to higher construction and maintenance costs.
Nike Mens Kobe XI 11 Low 3D Basketball shoes Sneaker orange 836183-084 Size 10,Nike sb dunk low staple panda pigeon Reps Size 10.5,
Schematic of highly efficient solar vapour generation based on tailored water transport in HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Hydrogels are known for their high water absorbency, because they both attract water and then trap it. This is an important part of the team’s new technology.
Men's Nike Air Sockracer Flyknit shoes -Reg 130 -StyleSz 10.5 NEW,NIKE SB STEFAN JANOSKI MAX SZ 11 BLACK DEEP NIGHT WHITE 631303 015,Nike SB Zoom Blazer Low 'Lance Mountain English pink' Cnvs Decon New (US11) max,
What sets this particular hydrogel apart, however, is its solar abilities.
Nike Kobe AD TB Promo Basketball Gorge Green Met Silver 942521-303 Men's Size 12,
This overall design and set of qualities means more evaporation with a much lower energy price tag.
Nike Hyperdunk Kyrie Irving HOH Exclusive Size 11,Nike Mens Size 8.5 Ebernon Mid White Athletic shoes Sneakers F7-334,
In fact, according to Yu, the solar desalination process achieved in tests significantly reduced the salinity of seawater—by about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.
In a press release, Nike for J.Crew Killshot 2 Sneakers Mens Size 12 New With Box,Nike Vandal High Supreme Leather Mens Lifestyle Black White Mens size 9,
10 Men's Nike Air Max 90 Big Logo orange white black running casual multicolor,New Men's Nike Zoom Victory XC3 Red orange or bluee Green Sz 8, 8.5, 10.5 120,
Characterization of the HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
This unique hydrogel is able to vaporize more water using less energy because its polymer network can break even the strong interactions among water molecules in liquid water. Another important innovation in this work is the ability to avoid reinventing the wheel despite this technological advance.
Nike Free 5.0 BOS Boston Marathon bluee Silver White Voltage running 809424-407,Kobe AD RUTHLESS Sz 8.5 100% Authentic Retro XI Elite A.D. 852425 010,
New without box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) that is not in original packaging or ... Read moreabout the condition
|US Shoe Size (Men's):||10||Product Line:||Nike Lunar Force, Duckboot|
Lunar Force 1 Duckboot
|Features:||Slip Resistant, Water Resistant||Sub Style:||Sneaker Boot|
In terms of what’s coming next for the team, scalability tests are in the near future.
Nike Air Jordan Fusion V AJF 5 2007 Men 8.5 Multi Bred Athletic Basketball Hip,Nike Air Huarache Pure Platinum Triple White All Sizes (318429-111)(PTI),Men 9Us Sneakers Nike Blazer Size,
Yu believes that ultimately these materials and the technology may be in use at an industrial scale, deployed by municipalities, after they’re first put to work in smaller devices used by individual households.
Nike air force 1 low size 11,