Outdoor solar water purification using HNGs in natural sunlight. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Saline water—classified as having more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved salts—can be made into freshwater through desalination. The process is typically fueled by the sun, or by some other power source heating the water; after the heat energy turns the saline water into steam, one captures the steam, and then distills it back into water as it cools and condenses. On a small scale, such as that of an individual-sized still, it’s a simple, rain-inspired process, albeit a slow one.
Nike Court Bgoldugh Low 838937401 navy bluee halfshoes,Nike Kobe 10 X Elite Wolf Grey flyknit High Size 8.5,
Distillation not only removes salt, but also other contaminants, so it’s been a traditional standby treatment process. The challenge to improve upon it is growing more urgent as the Earth’s population booms and freshwater resources dwindle thanks to pollution and drought. Salinity is a problem in at least 30 percent of the world’s irrigated regions, and remediation is very expensive, creating additional need for low-cost desalination.
Obviously, there are a number of weaknesses in the existing “state of the art” for desalination. The team took a systematic approach to dealing with each weakness in turn.
NIB Nike SF AF 1 Air Force 1 shoes Sneaker 864024-700 Mens Sz 12 gold Wheat,Nike Kobe XI 11 TB Promo Black White Basketball shoes Mens 14.5 856485-100,Nike Mens Free Train Virtue shoes Sneakers 898052 001 Black White Grey New 11 13,
Therefore, to provide enough energy for the water evaporation step of the process, most industrial solar water purification systems utilize costly and complex optical concentrators (OCs). These focus sunlight to heat the water. However, such optical concentration leads to higher construction and maintenance costs.
NIKE Dunk Low AS Black orange bluee shoes w Box Size 10 S01,NIKE AIR JORDAN FLY LUNARLON '89 -Black Game Royal White-MEN'S US10.5,
Schematic of highly efficient solar vapour generation based on tailored water transport in HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Hydrogels are known for their high water absorbency, because they both attract water and then trap it. This is an important part of the team’s new technology.
Nike SF Air Force 1 Mid Wolf Grey Black Men's Size 11 Basketball shoes,NEW NIKE AIR PRESTO ESSENTIAL MENS SHOES 848187-600 Track Red Black Summit SZ 13,NIKE EBERNON LOW NEW LEATHER MEN'S AQ1775-004,
What sets this particular hydrogel apart, however, is its solar abilities.
Nike ZOOM FLY Grey Running RRP .99,
This overall design and set of qualities means more evaporation with a much lower energy price tag.
Nike Flex 2018 RN Mens AA7397-400 Midnight Navy bluee Running shoes Size 9.5,Very Rare Nike Air Force 1 Low Supreme I O Talaria VNDS 318287 171 Sz 8,
In fact, according to Yu, the solar desalination process achieved in tests significantly reduced the salinity of seawater—by about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.
In a press release, 2012 NIKE AIR JORDAN VI 6 RETRO OLYMPIC 384664-130 MEN'S SZ US 13 ½,Nike Air Max 90 Ultra Superfly Tinker Hatfield HTM Tier 0 850613-001,
Nike air presto essential wolf grey (848187 013),Nike Air Zoom Generation Low size 12 Excellent Condition from 2004,
Characterization of the HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
This unique hydrogel is able to vaporize more water using less energy because its polymer network can break even the strong interactions among water molecules in liquid water. Another important innovation in this work is the ability to avoid reinventing the wheel despite this technological advance.
Nike Mens Air Force 1 Mid Trainers Tawny (718152-206),Mens Jordan Hydro 4 Retro Slide Sandals White Fire Red Black Fire Red 532225 160,
Pre-owned: An item that has been used or worn previously. See the seller’s listing for full details and ... Read moreabout the condition
|US Shoe Size (Men's):||10||Product Line:||Nike Air|
In terms of what’s coming next for the team, scalability tests are in the near future.
Nike Air Max FLAIR Size 9.5 Men's Running shoes White 942236100,Jordan retro size 12 mens Used and book bag,Nike Zoom Winflo 5 Mens AA7406-402 Blackened bluee Crimson Running shoes Size 9,
Yu believes that ultimately these materials and the technology may be in use at an industrial scale, deployed by municipalities, after they’re first put to work in smaller devices used by individual households.
MEN'S NIKE LUNAR EPIC LOW FLYKNIT 2 SIZE 11 Binary bluee,