Outdoor solar water purification using HNGs in natural sunlight. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Saline water—classified as having more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved salts—can be made into freshwater through desalination. The process is typically fueled by the sun, or by some other power source heating the water; after the heat energy turns the saline water into steam, one captures the steam, and then distills it back into water as it cools and condenses. On a small scale, such as that of an individual-sized still, it’s a simple, rain-inspired process, albeit a slow one.
Nike Lebron 12 USA Independence Size 7.5 Men's Red Mesh 684593 Basketball,Nike Air Max 95 No Sew Sneakers New, Dark Grey Gamma bluee 616190-040 SKU AA,
Distillation not only removes salt, but also other contaminants, so it’s been a traditional standby treatment process. The challenge to improve upon it is growing more urgent as the Earth’s population booms and freshwater resources dwindle thanks to pollution and drought. Salinity is a problem in at least 30 percent of the world’s irrigated regions, and remediation is very expensive, creating additional need for low-cost desalination.
Obviously, there are a number of weaknesses in the existing “state of the art” for desalination. The team took a systematic approach to dealing with each weakness in turn.
Nike Men Air Max Sequent 3 Running shoes Light Grey 921694-008 US7-11 04',Nike Kyrie 5 “JUST DO iT” SIZE 12 AO2918-003 BLACK VOLT PINK NEW,Nike Air VaporMax Vapor Max CS Black & White Running shoes Sz 9 NEW AH9046 00,
Therefore, to provide enough energy for the water evaporation step of the process, most industrial solar water purification systems utilize costly and complex optical concentrators (OCs). These focus sunlight to heat the water. However, such optical concentration leads to higher construction and maintenance costs.
Nike Zoom LeBron IV West Coast Sz11 Midnight Navy Met gold 314647-111,NEW IN BOX Nike AIR MAX 90 QS MARS LANDING Size 13,
Schematic of highly efficient solar vapour generation based on tailored water transport in HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Hydrogels are known for their high water absorbency, because they both attract water and then trap it. This is an important part of the team’s new technology.
Nike Nike Air Max 97 (Black Clear Emerald-White) Men's shoes 921826-013,Nike air max 180 size 44,Nike Air Jordan 4 Retro Alternate 89 Sz. 11 Men's shoes 308497 106 NO BOX TOP,
What sets this particular hydrogel apart, however, is its solar abilities.
Electric Purple. Phones Suns Foamposite,
This overall design and set of qualities means more evaporation with a much lower energy price tag.
2007 Nike Zoom Sharkley Remix Barkley White Black orange supreme sz 12.5US,Nike Air Max 97 SE “Taupe Team Red” Size 7 [AQ4126 202],
In fact, according to Yu, the solar desalination process achieved in tests significantly reduced the salinity of seawater—by about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.
In a press release, Nike Air Force 1 Odell Beckham JR Noise Cancelling Size 11.5,NikeLab Air Max 1 Pinnacle White uk10,
Nike iD Zoom KD XI 11 White Metallic gold Mens Size 7.5 AT8632 994 New,Nike Mens Air Maestro II LTD Running shoes AH8511-001,
Characterization of the HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
This unique hydrogel is able to vaporize more water using less energy because its polymer network can break even the strong interactions among water molecules in liquid water. Another important innovation in this work is the ability to avoid reinventing the wheel despite this technological advance.
Brand New Mens Air Foamposite One PRM Wolf Grey 575420-007 Size 7,NIKE AIR MAX MAX 95 ESSENTIAL BLACK BLACK-ANTHRACITE SIZE MEN'S 8 [749766-012],
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
|Style:||Running Shoes||Product Line:||Nike Air|
|US Shoe Size (Men's):||12|
In terms of what’s coming next for the team, scalability tests are in the near future.
Nike ID Kobe 9 IX Elite Low shoes Sz 10.5,2014 DS NIKE LEBRON XI 11 SOUTH BEACH MIAMI TURQUOISE Size 8.5 616175-330,NIKE AIR VAPORMAX TOTAL CRIMSON BLACK RUNNING SHOES AH9046 800 SZ 14 Max 97 1 98,
Yu believes that ultimately these materials and the technology may be in use at an industrial scale, deployed by municipalities, after they’re first put to work in smaller devices used by individual households.
New Nike Romaleos 3 Men's Size 13 Weightlifting shoes Crimson Black 852933 100,