Outdoor solar water purification using HNGs in natural sunlight. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Saline water—classified as having more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved salts—can be made into freshwater through desalination. The process is typically fueled by the sun, or by some other power source heating the water; after the heat energy turns the saline water into steam, one captures the steam, and then distills it back into water as it cools and condenses. On a small scale, such as that of an individual-sized still, it’s a simple, rain-inspired process, albeit a slow one.
Men's Nike Kyrie 4 IV 90's Decade Pack Basketball Multi-color 943806-902 Size 9,Nike Air Presto BR Breeze QS BLACK WHITE OREO 789869-001 sz S (9-10 Men),
Distillation not only removes salt, but also other contaminants, so it’s been a traditional standby treatment process. The challenge to improve upon it is growing more urgent as the Earth’s population booms and freshwater resources dwindle thanks to pollution and drought. Salinity is a problem in at least 30 percent of the world’s irrigated regions, and remediation is very expensive, creating additional need for low-cost desalination.
Obviously, there are a number of weaknesses in the existing “state of the art” for desalination. The team took a systematic approach to dealing with each weakness in turn.
Nike Epic React Flyknit Triple White Size 12. AQ0067-102 vapormax air max,Nike Air Max 98 Racer bluee 640744-103 WHT BLK-RACER blueE New 2018 SZ 13,Nike Air Max Deluxe Enamel Green Metallic Silver Obsidian Black Pink AJ7831-301,
Therefore, to provide enough energy for the water evaporation step of the process, most industrial solar water purification systems utilize costly and complex optical concentrators (OCs). These focus sunlight to heat the water. However, such optical concentration leads to higher construction and maintenance costs.
Men's size 8 NIKE Air Force 180 Mid Phoenix Suns (537330-017),Nike Lebron 15 XV Black Grey orange Bright Crimson AQ2363-002 Sz 10,
Schematic of highly efficient solar vapour generation based on tailored water transport in HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Hydrogels are known for their high water absorbency, because they both attract water and then trap it. This is an important part of the team’s new technology.
Mens Nike Shox NZ EU Sneakers New, White Black 501524-106 NEW IN BOX,Nike Air Max 95 PURE PLATINUM GREY ASHEN US MENS SHOEs 749766-036,Nike Air VaporMax Flyknit 2 Safari Athletic Fashion 942842 106 Men's Size 11,
What sets this particular hydrogel apart, however, is its solar abilities.
Nike Air Jordan 4 Retro Oreo,
This overall design and set of qualities means more evaporation with a much lower energy price tag.
NIKE Men's Air Max Plus NS GPX, Black White, 11 M US,Nike Air Max 95 Premium Mens Running SE Black White 3M Size 9.5 924478 001,
In fact, according to Yu, the solar desalination process achieved in tests significantly reduced the salinity of seawater—by about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.
In a press release, Lebron 12 Cork Mens Size 8.5,KOBE ZOOM VENOMENON 4 SIZE 10.0 COURT PURPLE GLOW IN DARK SUPER RARE NEW,
2012 NIKE ZOOM KD V ID KEVIN DURANT MULTI-COLOR SZ 9 [578551-992],Nike Air Presto Ultra BR 898020-800 US 12, Arctic orange,
Characterization of the HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
This unique hydrogel is able to vaporize more water using less energy because its polymer network can break even the strong interactions among water molecules in liquid water. Another important innovation in this work is the ability to avoid reinventing the wheel despite this technological advance.
Nike Air Just Don x Jordan Legacy 312 'Ghost Green' AQ4160 301 Size 10.5,NIKE AIR MAX 97 SE PULL TAB OBSIDIAN blueE-UNIVERSITY RED SZ 12 [AQ4126-400],
In terms of what’s coming next for the team, scalability tests are in the near future.
Nike Mens Air Max 90 Just Do It Pack Running shoes 700155-604,NIKE Men's Free Run Distance Black White-Dark Grey-Wolf Grey 827115-010 shoes Col,NIKE Men's AIR MAX 97 BW Deep Royal bluee Red Sneakers AO2406-400 Size 7-12,
Yu believes that ultimately these materials and the technology may be in use at an industrial scale, deployed by municipalities, after they’re first put to work in smaller devices used by individual households.
NIKE MENS AIR VERSITILE 3 MIDNIGHT NAVY WHITE GREY SHOES 2019 FREE POST AUST,