Outdoor solar water purification using HNGs in natural sunlight. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Saline water—classified as having more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved salts—can be made into freshwater through desalination. The process is typically fueled by the sun, or by some other power source heating the water; after the heat energy turns the saline water into steam, one captures the steam, and then distills it back into water as it cools and condenses. On a small scale, such as that of an individual-sized still, it’s a simple, rain-inspired process, albeit a slow one.
NIKE AIR MAX 95 ESSENTIAL DESERT SAND SUNSET TINT-BLACK SZ 14 [AQ6303-001],NIKE NIKELAB AIR MAX 1 PINNACLE OCEAN FOG-PROVENCE PURPLE 859554-400 MENS SZ 9,
Distillation not only removes salt, but also other contaminants, so it’s been a traditional standby treatment process. The challenge to improve upon it is growing more urgent as the Earth’s population booms and freshwater resources dwindle thanks to pollution and drought. Salinity is a problem in at least 30 percent of the world’s irrigated regions, and remediation is very expensive, creating additional need for low-cost desalination.
Obviously, there are a number of weaknesses in the existing “state of the art” for desalination. The team took a systematic approach to dealing with each weakness in turn.
Nike Air Huarache Run Ultra - Desert Sand Off-White - Black & Dark Grey - 7-11,Jordan Retro 10 Double Nickel Size 13,Nike Air Jordan Retro High OG 1 - Lemon Lime Gatorade -Cyber Yellow- AJ5997-345,
Therefore, to provide enough energy for the water evaporation step of the process, most industrial solar water purification systems utilize costly and complex optical concentrators (OCs). These focus sunlight to heat the water. However, such optical concentration leads to higher construction and maintenance costs.
Nike Air Jordan Retro 2 Black and Concord Size 10.5,NIKE SB GATO QS 'Supreme' - AR9821-116, White, 12,
Schematic of highly efficient solar vapour generation based on tailored water transport in HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Hydrogels are known for their high water absorbency, because they both attract water and then trap it. This is an important part of the team’s new technology.
NIKE Air Force 1 07 Deep Burgundy White 2011 Mens Classic Casual shoes 315122610,2004 Nike Dunk SB Low Red Hemp sz 9.5 mahogany,Nike LUNAREPIC LOW FLYKNIT 843764-100 WHITE BLACK BRIGHT MANGO sz 10 New,
What sets this particular hydrogel apart, however, is its solar abilities.
USED NIKE AIR FOAMS - PRO ISLAND GREEN METALLIC PLATINUM Size 10.5.,
This overall design and set of qualities means more evaporation with a much lower energy price tag.
NIKE AIR MAX 95 OG AT2865-002 Black Metallic gold Men's Sneakers Brand New NOW ,Nike SF AF1 QS Special Forces Field STRING GUM Air Force 1 SZ 12.5 (864024-200),
In fact, according to Yu, the solar desalination process achieved in tests significantly reduced the salinity of seawater—by about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.
In a press release, Air Jordan 11 Lab4 Size 14 Patent Leather Black White 719864-010,NWOBX RARE Men's NIKE Zoom MW FoamPosite ACG Boots shoes SZ 11(616215-060),
Major Restoration Deal, Air Jordan Spizike Nike Flightposite Eggplant Nike Penny,SOLD OUT KYRIE 5 COOKIES AND CREAM LMTD AO2918-100 SZ 9-13 BRAND NEW 3 22 19,
Characterization of the HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
This unique hydrogel is able to vaporize more water using less energy because its polymer network can break even the strong interactions among water molecules in liquid water. Another important innovation in this work is the ability to avoid reinventing the wheel despite this technological advance.
Nike Shox Gravity Black Gorge Green Mens Sz 12 AR1999-003,New Nike Air Jordan 1 Retro Mens Hi Flyknit Game Royal bluee Black 919704 006,
In terms of what’s coming next for the team, scalability tests are in the near future.
Nike Zoom 2K Mens White Red Grey Black shoes Trainer Sneaker UK Size 6-12,Nike Jordan Horizon Men’s Basketball Sneakers 823581-400,NIKE AIR MAX 97 PLUS AH8144-101 OREWOOD BROWN RATTAN STRING BLACK EMERALD RISE,
Yu believes that ultimately these materials and the technology may be in use at an industrial scale, deployed by municipalities, after they’re first put to work in smaller devices used by individual households.
Nike Pantheos grey da men Bianco black Scarpa da Ginnastica Sneaker Sport Run,