Outdoor solar water purification using HNGs in natural sunlight. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Saline water—classified as having more than 1,000 ppm of dissolved salts—can be made into freshwater through desalination. The process is typically fueled by the sun, or by some other power source heating the water; after the heat energy turns the saline water into steam, one captures the steam, and then distills it back into water as it cools and condenses. On a small scale, such as that of an individual-sized still, it’s a simple, rain-inspired process, albeit a slow one.
Men 8.5Us Nike Lab Air Max Plus Sneakers,Nike Air Force 1 Low Retro 845053 102 Summit White Game Royal Mens size 8.5 NEW,
Distillation not only removes salt, but also other contaminants, so it’s been a traditional standby treatment process. The challenge to improve upon it is growing more urgent as the Earth’s population booms and freshwater resources dwindle thanks to pollution and drought. Salinity is a problem in at least 30 percent of the world’s irrigated regions, and remediation is very expensive, creating additional need for low-cost desalination.
Obviously, there are a number of weaknesses in the existing “state of the art” for desalination. The team took a systematic approach to dealing with each weakness in turn.
Nike Future Fast Racer White Black Grey Mens EXP-X14 Zoom Fly Epic React 6 - 14,NIKE Vapor Untouchable 2 TD Mid Black Fir Green Flyweave Football Cleats Mens 12,Nike Air Force 1 '07 LE DB - 349440 111,
Therefore, to provide enough energy for the water evaporation step of the process, most industrial solar water purification systems utilize costly and complex optical concentrators (OCs). These focus sunlight to heat the water. However, such optical concentration leads to higher construction and maintenance costs.
Nike Kobe XI 11 EM 'Barcelona' Bright Mango Size 9.5 Mens 836183 806,Lebron 15 Ashes - Size 10,
Schematic of highly efficient solar vapour generation based on tailored water transport in HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
Hydrogels are known for their high water absorbency, because they both attract water and then trap it. This is an important part of the team’s new technology.
Nike air max 1 premium dark stucco DS sz.11US (45) 90 95 97 tn,Nike Air More Money Lone Star State Mens BV2521-001 Black Red shoes Size 10,Nike Air Jordan 10 Retro Lady Liberty Dust Metallic gold Black Size 10 (2211),
What sets this particular hydrogel apart, however, is its solar abilities.
Lebron Soldier 10 PE size 11,
This overall design and set of qualities means more evaporation with a much lower energy price tag.
Nike Air Max Penny 1 Game Royal bluee Memphis Men's shoes Size 9.5 AV7948-400 DS,Carhartt x Nike Air Force 1 '07 PRM WIP Low Ale Brown 8 8.5 9 AV4113 200 white,
In fact, according to Yu, the solar desalination process achieved in tests significantly reduced the salinity of seawater—by about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.
In a press release, Nike CJ81 Trainer Max QS pink Bowl Men's Size 11 DS,Size 9 Nike Men Air Max TR180 AMP shoes 723973 002 Black Brown,
NIKE AIR FORCE ONE 1 Have A Nike Day 7Y US 6 EU Pink,2010 Nike Air LUNARFLY + BLACK COOL WOLF GREY ROYAL blueE WHITE 396048-003 NEW 13,
Characterization of the HNGs. (Credit: Zhao, et al.)
This unique hydrogel is able to vaporize more water using less energy because its polymer network can break even the strong interactions among water molecules in liquid water. Another important innovation in this work is the ability to avoid reinventing the wheel despite this technological advance.
2010 Nike Air Jordan SKY HIGH CANVAS 1 AJKO WHITE RED CEMENT GREY 407282-101 12,Nike Air Max 270 Camo Heel Black Sunset Tint Cargo Khaki Men's 9 [AQ6239-001],
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
In terms of what’s coming next for the team, scalability tests are in the near future.
Nike ID Kobe 9 IX Elite Low shoes Sz 10.5,NIKE AIR MAX 95 PREMIUM - 'REBEL SKULL'S' BLACK & CHROME TRAINERS-US 9.5,Nike Air Max 95 Triple Black Men's Sneakers shoes 609048-092 Size 13,
Yu believes that ultimately these materials and the technology may be in use at an industrial scale, deployed by municipalities, after they’re first put to work in smaller devices used by individual households.
NIKE AIR MAX 270 MEN's CASUAL VOLT - BLACK - DARK GREY - WHITE AUTHENTIC NEW SZ,